This year the European Commission made Oslo the European Green Capital of 2019 and I’m not surprised. Our life in Oslo is so much “greener” compared to any other place I’ve lived in the US because the city has policies which make living sustainably the easiest, least expensive choice. Let’s start with transportation. As I mentioned in this post on walking, Oslo has improved the quality of life for their citizens by designing a walkable, bikeable and transit friendly city.
They have done this in part by increasing tolls for gasoline powered cars going into the city (driving into the city one way with a non electric car costs an individual around about $10 in tolls!), removing parking spaces, and increasing the price for parking in the city. These policies discourage vehicle traffic into the city, subsidize and encourage the use of public transit, and encourage a switch to electric cars. Car trips into the city have declined by 20% in the last 4 years. Because of these tolls, significantly reduced taxes on the sale of all new electric cars, and the availability of lots of charging stations around the city, more than half of the cars sold in the city are electric or plug-in hybrids simply because it is the most inexpensive choice.
Because fewer people are driving into the city, the city has been able to remove 600 parking spots on the streets replacing them with bike lanes, plants, tiny parks and benches. The city bike share program is thriving (and there is plenty of public support for biking as shown by several public bike tool fix it places like the one below). This year Oslo is also planning to make much of their center of the city car free which is pretty incredible.
Not only are personal trips becoming greener but 35% of city buses in Oslo currently run off biogas (generated from they city wide compost, as mentioned in this post) and by 2025 60% of the buses will be electric. Because of all these changes Oslo has lower levels of air pollution and a better acoustic environment than other European cities.
Many European cities have made portions of their city centres car free because of the immediate impact on the quality of life of their citizens. I hope larger cities in the US will follow suit. We just got back from a trip to Greece where we stayed in Athens for 4 days and Hydra, a tiny island off the coast with a ban on cars for 2 days (instead of cars they use donkeys). John and I both breathed a sigh of relief when we got to Hydra and I think it was mostly because of the stress from all the cars in Athens. Unlike Athens, walking in Hydra (like walking in Oslo) with a 4 and 8 year old was a pleasant experience. In general, Hydra (like Oslo) was also generally much quieter and calmer than Athens (until now I hadn’t thought of one’s “acoustic” experience in a city as related to how green it is but now I understand why)
Not only is the transportation sector in Oslo becoming “greener” but so are the buildings. Starting next year, there will be a ban on using fossil fuel heating oil in all new buildings and all new public buildings will be required to produce more energy with renewable energy than they consume. In addition, the small number of households that currently heat their homes with fossil fuels are given free help from the city to transition to heating with electric. Because electricity in Norway is 98% renewable (mostly hydroelectric) and because of Oslo’s work on making their transportation less dependent on fossil fuels. Oslo plans to cut carbon emissions by 50% from 1990 levels by next year and 95% by 2030. This is exactly the scale and speed that our world needs from all cities to fight the climate crisis and moving at this scale has some pretty incredible benefits. I am also yet again reminded how much more effective policies are (as compared to individual behaviour) to fight climate change and make our world a better place in the process.
P.S. Check out this awesome comic by Joel Pett which I think summarizes why both Republicans and Democrats in the US (regardless of whether they believe in climate change) support policies like those in Oslo.
P.P.S Although Oslo plans to become practically carbon neutral by 2030, they aren’t counting carbon emissions from people purchasing food or products, people flying (Oslo is planning on adding another runway to their airport), or for the oil the Norwegian government is allowing to be drilled in their oceans (Norway is being sued by several nonprofits for allowing new oil drilling in the Arctic). So, if you compare them to lots of cities in less wealthy countries, their carbon emissions per capita are in the middle of the pack. So, it is obvious that even more policies are needed to reduce carbon emissions (carbon tax anyone?).